Tips for tiling and ceramic tile maintenance
From Mercasur Estepona we want to give you a few tips that will lengthen (even more) the life and splendour of this material. Some tips about placement as well as maintenance of such a classic, rigid material chosen from a variety of ranges of ceramic tiles.
1 MEDIA PLACEMENT
We must first diagnose the support or surface for a perfect placement of the ceramic tiles taking into consideration the following: stability, compressibility of the intermediate layers, flatness, cohesion, capacity of water absorption, texture, chemical compatibility and the condition of the placement surface to where the bonding material will be applied. The primer surface should be flat, dry and free from grease, oil or dust and possess the adequate stability.
It is very important to respect appropriate setting times giving the surface time to settle so that it can successfully withstand loads and stresses and avoid potential structural movements which could be transmitted to the upper layers.
The placement of porcelain tiles will be done using the technique of fine layering using cement-like adhesives or reaction resin adhesives. Using a thick layering technique with traditional mortar is discouraged because of the very low water absorption capacity of porcelain tiles and there is no guarantee of adherence.
2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Generally cement-like type C2 adhesives are used, especially in the exterior and on unconventional surfaces. Layer of bonding material between 5 and 10 mm. maximum thickness. It is necessary to apply with a notched trowel to ensure homogeneity of the layer. Surfaces with type I flatness (deviation
Rapid drying of the adhesive is not advisable. Moistening of the tile with water is not recommended.
2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Application should be made when the atmospheric temperature, substrate temperature and the temperature of the materials are between + 5 ° C and + 30 ·C. Wind speed not exceeding 50 kph.
Avoid placement of tiles in rainy conditions.
2.3 PREPARATION OF ADHESIVE
Cement-like adhesives: preparation is undertaken according to the indications of the manufacturer, using suitable tools and clean water. It is kneaded with a mixer at low speed until a homogeneous, creamy, lump-free paste is obtained. It will be used while still in good condition and no additional water should be added. The quantity made will be adjusted according to the work speed and environmental conditions.
Dispersion adhesives: These are usually marketed in paste form, ready for use.
Reaction resin adhesive: Preparation according to the indications of the manufacturer. It is vital to use the components in their proper proportions, mixing them up well in order to obtain a homogeneous mixture. Use of a helical mixer is recommended. It is important to prepare and apply these materials within the temperature range suggested by the manufacturer (between 10 to 25·C)
2.4 SIMPLE BONDING
Selection of the trowel depends on factors such as type of installation, evenness of the placement surface, the size of the tiles and the adhesive being used. The adhesive is spread on the placement surface and combed with the trowel using the appropriate amount specified. It is important that it is applied within a specific time frame so as to prevent a dry film forming which will impair the adhesion.
The ceramic tile is placed on the adhesive layer by way of a sliding movement until removing all grooves and ensuring a proper bonding of the entire surface. Pressure can also be applied using a rubber mallet.
2.5 DOUBLE BONDING
It is used in: Coatings and outdoor flooring. Placing tiles with superior format of N 35×35 cm or equivalent surface. Interior floors subject to dynamic loads and static entity. To apply: On one hand the adhesive is spread on the placement surface with a notched trowel and on the other, the adhesive is extended along the back of the tile with a pallet or using the straight edge of the trowel. The final thickness of the adhesive should not exceed the maximum recommended. Ceramic tiles are placed before the formation of a dry film on the adhesive surface.
2.6 LAYING THE FLOOR TILES
Before placement begins, it is necessary to remove several tiles from different boxes and by laying them down (8-10 m2) check to see the effect, tonality, size and dimensions. The joins between the floor tiles should be straight and regular. The width of the joint depends on the tile format and the use and predictable effort to which it will be submitted during the laying process. It is not advisable to use a placement joint smaller than 1.5 mm. Under no circumstances can floor tiles be laid without joints.
It is advisable within the setting time, to lift one of the tiles to see if it is acquiring the surface contact needed. Excess adhesive should be moved from the joins before it hardens to allow for proper grouting. For rectangular formats locking the placement will be at maximum 15% of the length of the piece. The recently laid floor tiles must be protected from the weather elements, freezing conditions and premature drying.
Careful handling of the products is necessary. Avoid bumping the tiles together to prevent damage to the edges and dragging one over another which would scratch the surface of the tile. Once the material is laid it is essential that it is properly protected to prevent possible damage to the completed work. This material comes with it a protective wax coating for protection when handling and is removed by being cleaned with hot water.
3 MOVABLE JOINTS
3.1 STRUCTURED JOINTS
The length and width must be respected, involving all layers which constitute the coating system. For manual execution, sealants must have a minimum deformity of 15%.
3.2 PERIMETER JOINTS
They have a minimum width of 6 mm. They reach the depth of the base or at least to the layer acting as decoupling.
3.3 INTERMEDIATE JOINTS
When working indoors the total surface area is divided using intermediate joints every 40 m2 maximum and outdoors every 25 m2. They penetrate as deep as the perimeter joints. The width is set according to the expected movements within the entity.
Grouting is performed at least 24 hours after the tiles have been laid. The grout is applied following the instructions of the manufacturer. Usually a type CG2 grout material is used. For cases where high mechanical strength, tightness and chemical resistance are required grouting material type RG1 is used. Grouting paste is spread using a suitable rubber trowel and diagonal movements, filling joints in their total depth.
For a proper finish of the ceramic coating, it is necessary to finally clean the work. In this way, the residual cement, joint sealing materials and other residues are removed. This requires briefly using slightly acidic grease removal detergents diluted with water. DO NOT USE CLEANING AGENTS CONTAINING CHLORIC OR HYDROFLUORIC ACIDS OR DERIVATIVES THEREOF.
It is convenient to impregnate the surface with clean water prior to any chemical treatment to avoid possible absorption of the agents by the grouting materials. Such products must not be used on newly laid tiles as the acid reacts with the gripping and sealing materials not yet forged together. THE COMPANY SHALL TAKE NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR MATERIALS ONCE THEY HAVE BEEN LAID.
To facilitate cleaning and proper use of our materials, the use of doormats at entrances is recommended and it is advisable to keep the floor as clean as possible to get good results. Very important: The decorated, hand-painted tiles, including those with luster effects, pearlescent and gold should be treated gently during the cleaning process, since the use of pure or diluted acids, detergents or other corrosive products can alter the outward appearance significantly. We recommend cleaning decorated, hand-painted tiles with a sponge and water only. Failure to follow these recommendations, exempts the manufacturer from all liability.
The following is the direct responsibility of the project manager or the person making the purchase: monitoring and checking of the hardware supplied (quality of product, state of packaging and checking that the material ordered matches the material supplied, etc.) MERCASUR ESTEPONA will not accept complaints about products that have already been used. Any claim or problem with the product shall be communicated prior to placement, providing the Commercial Department with the label of the product which contains the model name, format, class, colour, tone, caliber and attaching any other references as well such as physical evidence, photographs, etc. which could help your claim.